Switzerland, is a country with many alps and rivers, an enchanting country, which attracts thousands of tourists every year. It is a magnificent country with big cities, untold beauties and strong economy.
Switzerland belongs to the western part of Europe, and its official name is the Swiss Confederation.
Westwards Switzerland borders with France, south and southeastwards with Italy, northwards and northeastwards with Germany and eastwards with Austria and Liechtenstein. It is a small country with an area of 41.285 square kilometers, but a high standard of living and developed in tourism.
Berne is the capital of Switzerland, while the largest city is Zürich. Quite important cities are also Geneva and Lausanne.
Switzerland has many lakes that cover an area of 1.343 square kilometers. The most significant are: Lake Geneva or Leman, shared with France, Lake Maggiore shared with Italy, Lake Constance, shared with Germany, Lake Zurich, Lake Lugano, Thun, Biel, Murten, etc.
Most of them are famous tourist resorts.
The Old Swiss Confederacy was an alliance instituted in 1921 among the rural communes (of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden). During the upcoming centuries other cantons joined the alliance and Switzerland expanded. In 1789, after the intrusion of France, Switzerland became a Federal State.
In 1815 it was the last time that Switzerland's territory was expanded, during the Congress of Vienna and the Swiss neutrality was recognized. After a short civil war in 1848, a new Constitution was adopted and the country became a Federal state, although it continued to be called a Swiss Confederation.
The cantons continued to be partly self-government. In 1874 and 1891, the Constitution changed radically.
At the end of the 19th century, Switzerland was one of the machine-made countries in Europe. It stayed neutralized during the Two World Wars, which favored its financial stability.
Switzerland was the homeland of two great personalities, scientists and artists. Already from the 17th century, it was a significant spiritual center, although the lack of a national language identified historically the swiss literature and spirit with the german and french.
Switzerland is the birthplace of the sociologist Jean Jacques Rousseau, of the economist and sociologist Vilfredo Pareto and the poet Vrindel
Hermann Hesse and Carl Spitteler were awarded with the Nobel Prize for Literature.