Syros is an island with long and important history. The island-according to historic sources and archaeological findings-is inhabited since Neolithic times. As first residents are mentioned Phinics.
Syros played a leading role in the development of Cycladic civilization. Excavations in Kastri and Halandriani, brought into light the remains of a grave and a settlement dated from Protocycladic period (3000BC).
The known civilization of Syros-Keros, developed then, flourished until 2000BC.
During historic times, Syros was inhabited by Ions.
In 6th century BC the island flourishes again. Apart from economy, art and civilization flourish in Syros.
It is the time that Ferekidis, the big philosopher who discovered heliotrope and teacher of Pithagoras, lives in Syros. It is said that he lived in two caves. One of them is in Halandriani and is known as the Cave of Ferekidis.
During Persian wars, Syros fought in the side of Athens and became part of the Athenaeum Alliance.
In the years that came, Syros followed the rest of Cyclades islands. She was conquered by Macedonians, Romans and Byzantine.
1207 is the year that Venetians conquer Cyclades islands. An important period begins then to stigmatize the history of the island.
In the 13th century Venetians built the Medieval city of Syros, Ano Syros. Many Catholics come to the island. In the 17th century catholic residents are more than orthodoxs.
Catholic churches and monasteries in the island reveal Syros special feature.
In 1537 Syros is conquered by Turkish. But it has special privileges due to Catholics. This fact made many European countries interested in protecting residents and securing their privileges.
During the 1821 Revolution, Syros was under the english possession and kept a detached attitude.
But she took many fugitives from the catastrophes of Kasos, Hios and Psara, who incorporated in its population. Ermoupoli started to develop then.
Later on many fugitives from Asia Minor came to the island.
In 1823 was built in Ermoupoli the first Hospital of Greece.
During 1833 the first gymnasium in Greece was built, in which El. Venizelos, studied.